The kinds of injuries that could result from a fall are varied. Just looking at this list should make us want to be careful when using ladders or working at heights!
There may be others, but here are some links to a few of the more likely ones (and consider that most if not all of these could happen even with a relatively short fall):
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR): http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-cpr/basics/art-20056600
Cuts and scrapes: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-cuts/basics/art-20056711
Foreign object in the skin: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid/basics/art-20056604